Somatropin: Human Growth Hormone

Somatropin: Human Growth Hormone (r-hGH)

What is Somatropin?

Somatropin is a naturally occurring polypeptide made of a repeating, unbranched chain of 191 amino acids joined by peptide bonds. It has an amino acid sequence identical to the human growth hormone of pituitary origin. Therefore, bioidentical.

Is Somatropin a Controlled Substance

No. Somatropin, or Human Growth Hormone, does not fall under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) and is not a controlled substance. But, FDA regulations are stringent.

Somatropin uses

Somatropin injection replaces growth hormone (a natural hormone produced by your body) in adults and children with growth hormone deficiency.

Even after we stop growing, adults still need a growth hormone. Taking a growth hormone will not cause an adult to begin growing again. Growth hormone plays a critical part in healthy muscle, how our bodies collect fat (especially in the abdominal area), and the ratio of high-density to low-density lipoproteins in our cholesterol levels and bone density.

Additionally, adults need a growth hormone for normal cognitive functions.

Clinical Pharmacology

Somatropin has demonstrated other actions, including muscle cell growth and protein, carbohydrate, lipid mineral, and connective tissue metabolism.

Muscle cell growth: Treatment with somatropin results in an increase in both the number and size of muscle cells.

Protein metabolism: Linear growth is facilitated, in part, by raised cellular protein synthesis. In addition, nitrogen retention by decreased urinary nitrogen excretion and serum urea nitrogen.

Carbohydrate metabolism: Somatropin is a counterregulatory hormone that oppresses insulin’s hepatic and peripheral effects on glucose metabolism. This ability of growth hormone to induce insulin resistance is essential for the protection against hypoglycemia, for the development of “stress” diabetes during fasting and inflammatory condition, and conceivably for the “Dawn” phenomenon (the increase in insulin requirements in the early morning hours).

Lipid metabolism: Using somatropin in growth hormone-deficient patients mobilizes lipids, reduces body fat stores, and increases plasma fatty acids.

Mineral metabolism: Somatropin conserves sodium, potassium, and phosphorous. Serum concentrations of inorganic phosphates improved in patients with growth hormone deficiency during the therapy.

Connective tissue metabolism: Somatropin stimulates the synthesis of chondroitin sulfate and collagen and the urinary excretion of hydroxyproline.

Clinical features of growth hormone deficiency

The symptomology can be discussed under neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiac, metabolic, muscular, and bone symptoms, such as:

  • Changes in memory, processing speed and attention
  • Lack of well-being
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Social isolation
  • Fatigue
  • Lack of strength
  • Fibromyalgia syndrome
  • Neuromuscular dysfunction
  • Central adiposity
  • Decreased muscle mass
  • Decreased bone density
  • Impaired cardiac function
  • Decreased insulin sensitivity
  • Accelerated atherogenesis with increased carotid intima–media thickness
  • Increased low-density lipoprotein
  • Prothrombotic state
  • Decreased sweating and thermoregulation.

Possible side effects

This medicine can cause side effects like all medicines, although not everybody gets them. The subcutaneous administration of growth hormone may increase or decrease fat at the site of administration. Change the location of administration frequently. On rare occasions, patients develop pain and an itchy rash at the administration site.

Joint swelling (5—6%), myalgia (3—30%), musculoskeletal pain (5—14%), pain and stiffness of the extremities (2—19%), and back pain (3—11%) have been associated with somatropin therapy. See the last link for all possible side effects.


References:

https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drug_chem_info/hgh.pdf
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23629538/
https://www.cedars-sinai.org/health-library/diseases-and-conditions/a/adult-growth-hormone-deficiency.html
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3356038/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2815161/
https://academic.oup.com/edrv/article/30/2/152/2355062
https://journals.lww.com/md-journal/fulltext/2020/07020/serum_minerals__ca,_p,_co,_mn,_ni,_cd__and_growth.48.aspx
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24235105/
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15998337/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3183535/
https://d2hu1op93domjx.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/sites/12/2016/02/24085312/2009055382-Zomacton-PI-Rev.-07.2018.pdf

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